KPCM

Experience
Professor and Chair, Villanova University, Fall 2018 – present

Professor, Villanova University, Fall 2017 – present

Associate Professor, Villanova University, 2014 to 2017

Visiting Professor, University of Pennsylvania, Fall 2015 and Fall 2017

Assistant Professor, Villanova University, 2011 to 2014

Associate Professor, James Madison University, 2009 to 2011

Assistant Professor, James Madison University, 2003 to 2009

Visiting Professor, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Fall 2006

Education
B.S., University of Notre Dame, 1996
Advisor: Professor Paul Helquist

Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania, 2001
Advisor: Professor Amos B. Smith, III.  (photo)
Thesis: The Total Synthesis of Phorboxazole A

Postdoctoral Research, Harvard University, 2001-2003
Advisor: Professor Andrew Myers

Publications (see Google Scholar Citations and links).  H index = 28 as of July 2020.
(Undergraduate coworkers underlined, Villanova MS students have ^).

60-65. Submitted.

59. Andrew Loudon, Alex Kurtz, Emma Esposito, Thomas Umile, Kevin Minbiole, Laura Parfrey, Brandon Sheafor. Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) have characteristic skin microbiota that may be shaped by cutaneous skin peptides and the environment. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 2020, Accepted.

58.  Cassandra L. Schrank, Kevin P. C. Minbiole,* and William M. Wuest*. Are Quaternary Ammonium Compounds, the Workhorse Disinfectants, E!ective against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2? ACS Infectious Disease 2020, 6, (7), 1553–1557. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.0c00265

57. Guan-Hong Wang, Brittany M. Berdy, Olivia Velasquez, Nikola Jovanovic, Saleh Alkhalifa^, Kevin P.C. Minbiole, and Robert M. Brucker*. Changes in Microbiome Confer Multigenerational Host Resistance after Sub-toxic Pesticide Exposure. Cell Host & Microbe. 2020, 27 (2), 13-224.e7. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.01.009

56. Austin J. Leitgeb, Javier A. Feliciano^, Hugo Sanchez, Ryan A. Allen, Kelly R. Morrison, Kyle J. Sommers^, Robert G. Carden, William M. Wuest,* Kevin P. C. Minbiole*. ChemMedChem. 2020, 15 (8), 667-670. DOI: doi.org/10.1002/cmdc.201900662

55.  Saleh Alkhalifa, Megan C. Jennings, Daniele Granata, Michael Klein, William M. Wuest*, Kevin P. C. Minbiole*, Vincenzo Carnevale* Analysis of the Destabilization of Bacterial Membranes by Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: A Combined Experimental and Computational Study. 2020ChemBioChem, 21 (10) 1510-1516:  DOI: doi.org/10.1002/cbic.201900698

54. Kelly R. Morrison, Ryan Allen, Kevin P.C. Minbiole*, William M. Wuest.* More QACs, more questions: recent advances in structure activity relationships and hurdles in  understanding resistance mechanisms. 2019, Tetrahedron Letters, 60 (37), Article 150935. DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.tetlet.2019.07.026

53. Louise Rollins-Smith, Antonio Ruzzini, J. Fites, Laura Reinert, Emily Hall, Bryan Joosse, Vishvaas Ravikumar, Megan Huebner, Audrey Aka, Miles Kehs, Bria Gillard,^ Emily Doe, Julia Tasca,^ Thomas Umile, Jon Clardy, and Kevin Minbiole.  Metabolites involved in immune evasion by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis include the polyamine spermidine.  2019, Accepted, Infection and Immunity. DOI: doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00035-19

52. Renee C. Kontos,^ Stephanie A. Schallenhammer,^ Brian S. Bentley, Kelly R. Morrison, Javier A. Feliciano, Julia A. Tasca,^ Anna R. Kaplan, Mark W. Bezpalko, Scott W. Kassel, William M. Wuest,* Kevin P. C. Minbiole*. An Investigation Into Rigidity‐Activity Relationships in bisQAC Amphiphilic Antiseptics. ChemMedChem 2019, 14, 83–87.  Link.  DOI: doi.org/10.1002/cmdc.201800622

51. Nereus W. Gunther IV,*Aisha Abdul-Wakeel, Erin R. Reichenberger, Saleh Al-Khalifa,^ Kevin P. C. Minbiole.* Quaternary Ammonium Compounds with Multiple Cationic Moieties (multiQACs) Provide Antimicrobial Activity against Campylobacter jejuni. Food Control. 2018, 94, 187-194.  Link.  DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2018.06.038

50. Julia A. Tasca,^ Chelsea R. Smith, Elizabeth A. Burzynski,^ Brynn N. Sundberg,^ Anthony F. Lagalante, Tatyana Livshultz, Kevin P. C. Minbiole.  HPLC-MS detection of pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their N-oxides in herbarium specimens dating back to the 1850s. Applications in Plant Sciences.  2018, 6(4): e1143.  Link.  DOI:  http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aps3.1143

49. Douglas C. Woodhams,* Brandon C. LaBumbard, Kelly L. Barnhart, Matthew H. Becker, Molly C. Bletz, Laura A. Escobar, Sandra V. Flechas, Megan E. Forman,^ Anthony A. Iannetta, Maureen D. Joyce, Falitiana Rabemananjara, Brian Gratwicke, Miguel Vences, Kevin P.C. Minbiole.*  Prodigiosin, Violacein, and Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Widespread Cutaneous Bacteria of Amphibians Can Inhibit Two Batrachochytrium Fungal Pathogens. Microbial Ecology.  2018, 75, 1049–1062.

48. Stephanie A. Schallenhammer,^ Stephanie M. Duggan, Kelly R. Morrison, Brian S. Bentley, William M. Wuest*, Kevin P. C. Minbiole.*  Hybrid BisQACs: Potent Biscationic Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Merging the Structures of Two Commercial Antiseptics. 2017, 12, 1931-1934. ChemMedChemLink.  DOI:10.1002/cmdc.201700597

47. Kelly Barnhart, Megan E. Forman,^ Thomas P. Umile, Jordan Kueneman, Valerie McKenzie, Irene Salinas, Kevin P. C. Minbiole,* Douglas C. Woodhams*.  Identification of Bufadienolides from the Boreal Toad, Anaxyrus boreas, Active Against a Fungal Pathogen.  Microbial Ecology. 2017, 74, 990–1000. Link. DOI: 10.1007/s00248-017-0997-8

46. Megan C. Jennings, Megan E. Forman,^ Stephanie M. Duggan, Kevin P.C. Minbiole, William M. Wuest. Efflux Pumps May Not Be the Major Drivers of QAC Resistance in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. ChemBioChem. 2017, 18, 1573–1577. Link. DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201700233

45. Ryan A. Allen, Megan C. Jennings, Myles A. Mitchell, Saleh E. Al-Khalifa,^ William M. Wuest*, Kevin P. C. Minbiole.* Ester- and Amide-containing MultiQACs: Exploring Multicationic Soft Antimicrobial Agents. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2017, 27, 2107-2112. Link. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2017.03.077.

44. Daniel Medina*, Myra C. Hughey, Matthew H. Becker, Jenifer B. Walke, Thomas P. Umile, Elizabeth Burzynski,^ Anthony Iannetta, Kevin P.C. Minbiole and Lisa K. Belden. Functional variation of an amphibian skin bacterial community across elevations: evidence of context-dependency in symbiotic interactions.  Microbial Ecology. 2017, 74, 227–238. Link. doi: 10.1007/s00248-017-0933-y

43. Saleh E. Al-Khalifa,^ Megan C. Jennings, William M. Wuest*, Kevin P. C. Minbiole*. The Development of Next Generation Pyridinium-Based multiQAC Antiseptics. ChemMedChem. 2017, 12, 280–283. Link. doi: 10.1002/cmdc.201600546

42. Deanna L. Zubris, Kevin P. C. Minbiole, William M. Wuest. Polymeric Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Versatile Antimicrobial Materials. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry2017, 17, 305-318. Link.  doi: 10.2174/1568026616666160829155805

41. Suleyman Ozakin, Robert W. Davis^, Thomas P. Umile, Necmettin Pirinccioglu, Murat Kizil, Gurbet Celik, Alaattin Sen, Kevin P. C. Minbiole, Ebru İnce. The isolation of tetrangomycin from terrestrial Streptomyces sp. CAH29: evaluation of antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-MRSA activity. Medicinal Chemistry Research. 2016, 25, 2872–2881. Link. doi: 10.1007/s00044-016-1708-6.

40. Megan E. Forman^, Megan C. Jennings, William M. Wuest,* Kevin P.C. Minbiole.*  Building a Better QAC: Branched Tetracationic Antiseptic Amphiphiles.  ChemMedChem. 2016, 11, 1401–1405.  Link.  doi:10.1002/cmdc.201600176.

39. Myra Hughey, Jenifer Walke, Matthew Becker, Thomas Umile, Elizabeth Burzynski,^ Kevin Minbiole, Anthony Iannetta, Celina Santiago, William Hopkins, Lisa Belden. Short-term exposure to coal combustion waste has little impact on the skin microbiome of adult spring peepers, Pseudacris crucifer. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2016, 82, 3493-3502. Link. doi:10.1128/AEM.00045-16.

38. Megan E. Forman^, Madison H. Fletcher, Megan C. Jennings, Stephanie M. Duggan, Kevin P.C. Minbiole,*  William M. Wuest.* Structure-Resistance Relationships: Interrogating Antiseptic Resistance in Bacteria with Multicationic Quaternary Ammonium Dyes. ChemMedChem. 2016, 11, 958–962. Link. doi: 10.1002/cmdc.201600095

37. Eria A. Rebollar, Rachael E. Antwis, Matthew H. Becker, Lisa K. Belden, Molly C. Bletz, Robert M. Brucker, Xavier A. Harrison, Myra C. Hughey, Jordan G. Kueneman, Andrew H. Loudon, Valerie McKenzie, Daniel Medina, Kevin P.C. Minbiole, Louise A. Rollins-Smith, Jennifer B. Walke, Sophie Weiss, Douglas C. Woodhams, Reid N. Harris. Using “omics” and integrated multi-omics approaches to guide probiotic selection to mitigate chytridiomycosis and other emerging infectious diseases. Frontiers in Microbiology – Infectious Diseases.2016. 2016.00068. Link.

36. Kevin P.C. Minbiole,* Megan C. Jennings, Laura E. Ator,^ Jacob W. Black, Melissa C. Grenier, Jade E. LaDow, Kevin L. Caran, Kyle Seifert, William M. Wuest.* From Antimicrobial Activity to Mechanism of Resistance: The Multifaceted Role of Simple Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in Bacterial Eradication.  Tetrahedron. 2016. 3559-3566. Link.doi:10.1016/j.tet.2016.01.014

35. Maureen D. Joyce, Megan C. Jennings, Celina N. Santiago, Madison H. Fletcher, William M. Wuest,* Kevin P. C. Minbiole.* Natural Product-Derived Quaternary Ammonium Compounds with Potent Antimicrobial Activity.  The Journal of Antibiotics. 2016, 69, 344-347. Link.

34. Emily C. Minbiole, Kevin P. C. Minbiole. The Petasis-Ferrier Reaction – Developments and Applications. The Journal of Antibiotics. 2016, 69, 213-219. Link.

33. Kevin P. C. Minbiole.  Organic Synthesis in the Smith Group: A Personal Selection of a Dozen Lessons Learned at the University of Pennsylvania. Journal of Antibiotics. 2016, 69, 192–202.  Link.

32. Lisa K. Belden, Myra C. Hughey, Eria A. Rebollar, Thomas P. Umile, Stephen C. Loftus, Elizabeth A. Burzynski^, Kevin P.C. Minbiole, Leanna L. House, Roderick V. Jensen, Matthew H. Becker, Jenifer B. Walke, Daniel Medina, Roberto Ibanez, Reid N. Harris.  Panamanian frog species host unique skin bacterial communities. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2015, article 1171. Link.

31. Jenifer B. Walke, Matthew H. Becker, Stephen C. Loftus, Leanna L. House, Thais L. Teotonio, Kevin P. C. Minbiole, Lisa K. Belden.  Community Structure and Function of Amphibian Skin Microbes: An Experiment with Bullfrogs Exposed to a Chytrid Fungus. PLOS One, 2015, article e0139848. Link.

30. Louise A. Rollins-Smith, J. Scott Fites, Laura K. Reinert, Andrea R. Shiakolas, Thomas P. Umile, and Kevin P.C. Minbiole.  Immunomodulatory metabolites released by the frog-killing fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Infection and Immunity. 2015, 4565-4570. Link.

29. Myles A. Mitchell, Anthony A. Iannetta, Megan C. Jennings, Madison H. Fletcher, William M. Wuest and Kevin P. C. Minbiole. Scaffold-hopping of Multicationic Amphiphiles Yields Three New Classes of Antimicrobials.ChemBioChem, 2015, 2299-2303. Link.

28. Megan C. Jennings, Bettina A. Buttaro, Kevin P.C. Minbiole, William M. Wuest. Bioorganic Investigation of Multicationic Antimicrobials to Combat QAC-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  ACS Infectious Diseases 2015,304-308.

27. Megan C. Jennings, Kevin P.C. Minbiole, William M. Wuest. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: An Antimicrobial Mainstay and Platform for Innovation to Address Bacterial Resistance.  ACS Infectious Diseases2015, 289-303.  Link.

26. Matthew H. Becker, Jenifer B. Walke, Lindsey Murrill, Douglas C. Woodhams, Laura K. Reinert, Louise A. Rollins-Smith, Elizabeth A. Burzynski^, Thomas P. Umile, Kevin P. C. Minbiole, Lisa K. Belden.  Phylogenetic distribution of symbiotic bacteria from Panamanian amphibians that inhibit growth of the lethal fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.  Molecular Ecology. 2015, 1628–1641. Link.

25. Matthew H. Becker, Jenifer B. Walke, Shawna Cikanek, Anna E. Savage, Nichole Mattheus, Celina N. Santiago, Kevin P.C. Minbiole, Reid N. Harris, Lisa K. Belden, Brian Gratwicke.  Composition of symbiotic bacteria predicts survival in Panamanian golden frogs infected with a lethal fungus.  Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B.  2015. 282:20142881.  Link.

24. Elizabeth A. Burzynski^, Tatyana Livshultz, Kevin P.C. Minbiole.  New sources of lycopsamine-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids and their distribution in Apocynaceae. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2015, 331-339. Link.

23. Jeremy P. Ramsey, Albert Mercurio, Jessica A. Holland, Reid N. Harris, Kevin P.C. Minbiole.  The Cutaneous Bacterium Janthinobacterium lividum Inhibits the Growth of Trichophyton rubrum In Vitro.  International Journal of Dermatology, 2015, 156-159. Link.

22. Thomas J. Paniak, Megan C. Jennings, Paul C. Shanahan, Maureen D. Joyce, Celina N. Santiago, William M. Wuest,*, Kevin P. C. Minbiole.*  The antimicrobial activity of mono-, bis-, tris-, and tetracationic amphiphiles derived from simple polyamine platforms. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2014, 5824-5828. Link.

21. Laura E. Ator^, Megan C. Jennings, Amanda R. McGettigan, Jared J. Paul, William M. Wuest,*, Kevin P. C. Minbiole.*  Beyond paraquats: Dialkyl 3,3′- and 3,4′-bipyridinium amphiphiles as antibacterial agents.  Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2014, 3706-3709.  Link.

20. Megan C. Jennings, Laura E. Ator^, Thomas J. Paniak, Kevin P.C. Minbiole,* William M. Wuest* Biofilm Eradicating Properties of Quaternary Ammonium Amphiphiles: Simple Mimics of Antimicrobial Peptides.ChemBioChem, 2014, 2211–2215.  Link.

19.  Andrew Howard Loudon,* Jessica A Holland, Thomas P Umile, Elizabeth A Burzynski, Kevin PC Minbiole and Reid N Harris.  Interactions between amphibians’ beneficial bacteria cause the production of emergent anti-fungal metabolites.  Frontiers in Microbiology – Microbial Symbioses.  2014, 5:441.  Link.

18.  Thomas P. Umile; Patrick J. McLaughlin; Kendall R. Johnson; Shaya Honarvar; Alison L. Blackman; Elizabeth A. Burzynski^; Robert W. Davis; Thais L. Teotonio; Gail W. Hearn; Chrisi A. Hughey; Anthony F. Lagalante; Kevin P. C. Minbiole. Nonlethal Amphibian Skin Swabbing of Cutaneous Natural Products for HPLC Fingerprinting. Anal. Methods, 2014, 6, 3277-3284.  Link.

17.  Jacob W. Black, Megan C. Jennings, Julianne Azarewicz, Thomas Paniak, Melissa C. Grenier, William M. Wuest, Kevin P.C. Minbiole.   TMEDA-derived Biscationic Amphiphiles:  An Economical Preparation of Potent Antibacterial Agents. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters  2014, 99-102.  Link.

16. Molly Bletz; Andrew Loudon; Matthew Becker; Sara Bell; Douglas Woodhams; Kevin Minbiole; Reid Harris. Mitigating amphibian chytridiomycosis with bioaugmentation: Characteristics of effective probiotics and strategies for their selection and use.  Ecology Letters. 2013, 16(6), 807-820.  Link.

15. Jillian M. Myers, Jeremy P. Ramsey, Alison L. Blackman, A. Elizabeth Nichols, Kevin P. C. Minbiole, and Reid N. Harris.  Synergistic Inhibition Of The Lethal Fungal Pathogen Batrachochytrium Dendrobatidis: The Combined Effect Of Symbiotic Bacterial Metabolites And Antimicrobial Peptides Of The Frog Rana Muscosa.   J. Chem. Ecol.  2012, 958-965.  Link.

14. Melissa C. Grenier, Robert W. Davis, Kelsey L. Wilson-Henjum, Jade E. LaDow, Jacob W. Black, Kevin L. Caran, Kyle Seifert, Kevin P. C. Minbiole.  The Antibacterial Activity of 4,4’-Bipyridinium Amphiphiles with Conventional, Bicephalic and Gemini Architectures. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 2012, 4055-4058. Link.

13. Matthew H. Becker, Reid N. Harris, Kevin P. C. Minbiole, Christian R. Schwantes, Louise A. Rollins-Smith, Laura K. Reinert, Robert M. Brucker, Rickie J. Domangue, Brian Gratwicke. Towards a better understanding of the use of probiotics for preventing chytridiomycosis in Panamanian golden frogs.  EcoHealth, 2011, 501-506. Link

12.  Jade E. LaDow, David C. Warnock, Kristina M. Hamill, Kaitlin L. Simmons, Robert W. Davis, Christian R. Schwantes, Devon C. Flaherty, Kevin L. Caran,  Kevin P. C. Minbiole, and Kyle Seifert. Bicephalic Amphiphile Architecture Affects Antimicrobial Activity.  European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2011, 4219-4226. Link

11.  Kevin P. C. Minbiole, Patrick J. Wiggins, Jacob Smith, Reid N. Harris. The Salamander Gut May Serve as a Reservoir for an Antifungal Cutaneous Bacterium.  Journal of Herpetology, 2011, 329-332. Link.

10. Matthew Becker, Robert Brucker, Reid N. Harris, Christian Schwantes, Kevin P. C. Minbiole. The bacterially-produced metabolite violacein is associated with survival in amphibians infected with a lethal disease. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2009, 75, 21, 6635-6638.

9. Reid N. Harris, Robert M. Brucker, Jenifer B. Walke, Matthew H. Becker, Christian R. Schwantes, Devon C. Flaherty, Brianna A. Lam, Doug C. Woodhams, Cheryl J. Briggs, Vance T. Vredenburg, Kevin P. C. Minbiole. Skin microbes on frogs prevent morbidity and mortality caused by a lethal skin fungus,  ISME Journal,  2009, 3, 818-824.

8. Robert M. Brucker, Reid N. Harris, Christian R. Schwantes, Thomas N. Gallaher, Devon C. Flaherty, Brianna A. Lam, Kevin P. C. Minbiole. Amphibian chemical defense: Antifungal metabolites of the microsymbiont Janthinobacterium lividum on the salamander Plethodon cinereus. J. Chem. Ecol. 2008, 34, 1422-1429.

7. Robert M. Brucker, Cambria M. Baylor, Robert L. Walters, Antje Lauer, Reid N. Harris, Kevin P. C. Minbiole. The Identification of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol as an Antifungal Metabolite Produced by Cutaneous Bacteria of the Salamander Plethodon cinereus.  J. Chem. Ecol. 2008, 34, 39-43.

6. Kerry E. O’Neil, Seth V. Kingree, Kevin P. C. Minbiole.  A Cyclopropane Fragmentation Approach to Heterocycle Assembly:  A Convergent Synthesis of Oxepanes.  Org. Lett., 2005, 7, 515-517.

5. Amos B. Smith, III; Kevin P. Minbiole; Patrick R. Verhoest; Michael Schelhaas. Total Synthesis of (+)-Phorboxazole A Exploiting the Petasis-Ferrier Rearrangement. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 10942-10953.

4. Amos B. Smith, III; Kevin P. Minbiole; Scott Freeze. Facile Assembly of 2,4-Orthogonally-Functionalized Oxazoles: Useful Bidirectional Linchpins. Synlett 2001, 13, 1739-1742.

3. Amos B. Smith, III; Patrick R. Verhoest; Kevin P. Minbiole; Michael Schelhaas. Total Synthesis of (+)-Phorboxazole A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 4834-4836.

2. Amos B. Smith, III; Kevin P. Minbiole; Patrick R. Verhoest; Thomas J. Beauchamp. Phorboxazole Synthetic Studies. 2. Construction of a C(20-28) Subtarget, a Further Extension of the Petasis-Ferrier Rearrangement. Org. Lett. 1999, 1, 913-916.

1. Amos B. Smith, III; Patrick R. Verhoest; Kevin P. Minbiole; John J. Lim. Phorboxazole Synthetic Studies. 1. Construction of a C(3-19) Subtarget Exploiting an Extension of the Petasis-Ferrier Rearrangement. Org. Lett. 1999, 1, 909-912.

Book Chapter
Minbiole, K. P. C. “Product Class 46.4: 1,3 Dienes; Synthesis by Aldol and Related Condensations.” In Science of Synthesis; Volume 46; Rawal, V. H. and Kozmin, S. A., Volume Editors. Georg Thieme Verlag: Stuttgart, September 2009.

Mini-review
Harris, R. N.; Minbiole, K. P. C.  “Can Manipulations of Amphibians’ Mutualistic Skin Bacteria Control a Lethal Skin Disease?”  Biocontrol News and Information 2009, 30 (2), 19N–20N. (PDF)

Patents – Issued
Wuest, W. M.; Minbiole, K. P. C.  U.S. Patent No. 10,398,142. “Polycationic amphiphiles as antimicrobial agents.” Temple University and Villanova University. (Issued September 3, 2019)

Wuest, W. M.; Minbiole, K. P. C.  U.S. Patent No. 10,301,254. “Substituted Polycationic Multi-Quaternary Ammonium Salts as Antimicrobial Agents.” Temple University and Villanova University. (Issued May 28, 2019)

Wuest, W. M.; Minbiole, K. P.  US Patent 10,136,639. “Polycationic Amphiphiles as Antimicrobial Agents.” Assignees: Temple University and Villanova University.  (Issued November 27, 2018)

Minbiole, K. P.; Caran, K. L.; Seifert, K. L. US Patent 8,980,925 B2. “Antimicrobial Amphiphiles And Methods For Their Use.”  Via James Madison University.  (Issued March 2015)

Minbiole, K. P. C.; Harris, R. N.  US Patent 8,506,952 B2.  “Probiotic Compositions and Processes Thereof.”  July 2010. Via James Madison University.  (Issued July 2013.)

Patents – Submitted
International Patent Application No. PCT/US17/58409; filed April 19, 2019.  William Wuest and Kevin Minbiole. Polycationic Amphiphiles as Antimicrobial Agents and Methods Using Same. Temple University and Villanova University.